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語言學習電子報_第八十三期 [2017-11-08]
類別:公告  發布單位:教務處

語言學習電子報

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第八十三期

 

本期目錄

                                                         BEG: The Nazca Lines 納茲卡線條

                                              ADV: History’s Winners and Losers 歷史贏家及輸家

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The Nazca Lines

納茲卡線條

The Nazca Lines, located in Peru, are a group of designs in the ground made from sand and rock. They’re enormous, and there are hundreds of them. Some designs look like birds, monkeys, or even plants, whereas others are just unusual shapes that don’t look like plants or Elem35-01(縮小)animals.

納茲卡線條位於秘魯,一系列由沙子與岩石組成的地面圖騰。他們很巨大且有數量有好幾百個。有些圖騰看起來像是鳥、猴子或者是植物 ; 但其他的只是些不尋常圖騰形狀不像植物也不像動物。

 

Pilots started flying planes across Peru in the 1930s, and soon after people started to become aware of the Nazca Lines. An American teacher named Paul Kosok studied the lines for many years. Maria Reiche joined Kosok. In 1948, Kosok left, but Reiche continued to research the lines for a long time.

1930年飛行員開始飛越祕魯上空,很快地便注意到納茲卡線條。一位美國老師Paul Kosok研究納茲卡線條多年。之後Maria Reiche隨後加入Kosok的研究行列。然而Paul Kosok在1948年離開團隊,留下Maria Reiche繼續長時間的研究。

 

Elem35-02(縮小)It is believed that the Nazca people made the lines sometime between AD 1 and 700. Reiche thought that the designs were connected with the stars in some way. In 1985, a scholar named John Reinhard came up with a new idea. He pointed out that the Nazca people were probably using the designs to worship some kind of God that controlled the water. Other scholars have different ideas.

人們相信納茲卡線條是在公元一年到700年之間由納茲卡人所創造的。Maria Reiche認為這些圖騰在某些方面和星象有關。在1985年一位名叫John Reinhard的學者則有不同的想法,他指出納茲卡人民可能藉由這些設計來敬奉掌管水的神。其他學者則有不同的看法。

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. design (n) an organization of elements in a work of art  設計

Look at the design on this dress! 

快看這裙子的設計!

 

2. enormous (adj.) very big巨大的,龐大的

That mountain looks enormous.

那座山看起來很巨大。

 

3. research (v) to study something in order to learn more and reach new conclusions做研究,做調查

Stephanie thinks that there isn’t enough research being done in the field of modern medicine. 

Stephanie認為這個領域的新藥研究尚顯不足。

 

4. scholar (n) a specialist in a particular branch of study學者

Mr. Atkins is a Latin literature scholar.  

Atkins是一位拉丁文學的學者。

 

5. worship (v) to show honor to a God 崇拜,膜拜

The ancient Egyptians worshipped many deities

古埃及人信奉很多神。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. Some noun(s) + clause, + whereas others + contrasting clause (sentence pattern)然而...

Some Americans can speak English and Spanish, whereas others can only speak English.  有些美國人會說英語和西班牙語,然而有些卻只會說英語。

 

2. come up with (something) (phrasal verb) to think of an idea or plan想出

Have you come up with any ideas yet?

你有想出任何辦法了嗎?

 

3. point out (phrasal verb) to bring attention to something指出

Danny pointed out that Nick wasn’t wearing any clothes.

Danny指出Nick沒有穿任何衣服。

 

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History’s Winners and Losers

歷史贏家及輸家

Winston Churchill once said: “History is written by the victors.” This means that the winners of wars and elections have the power to control what is written in books, what is taught in schools, and what is shown in the media, among other things. But is this isn’t always necessarily true. Quite a few influential pieces of writing have come from the losing side.

Adv35-01Winston Churchill(英國首相邱吉爾)曾說過:「歷史是贏家所寫的」。這代表贏了戰爭或是選舉贏的人,不只掌控著書籍文字、學校的教導內容、媒體上的言論,還有其他的東西... 但事實並非都是如此,還是有少數具有影響力的寫作片段是由戰敗方所寫。

 

Sometimes the losers have a more powerful influence on history. One case is the Fall of Constantinople, which happened in 1453. Constantinople was the old capital of present-day Turkey. The Byzantine Empire wastaken over by the Ottoman Empire, and although the Ottoman Empire was victorious, many Greek scholars (who were part of the Byzantine Empire) left the area andheaded west. They wrote about how unreasonably violent the Ottomans were, and the public later became biased against them.

Adv35-02(縮小)有時候輸家對於歷史的影響更大,如在1453年發生的伊士坦堡的陷落就是其一。伊斯坦堡是現今土耳其的舊首都。拜占庭帝國被奧斯曼帝國接手,儘管奧斯曼帝國勝利了,很多希臘學者(拜占庭帝國的一份子)離開並前往西方。他們寫下奧斯曼帝國如何使用不合理的武力,因而造成人民的質疑。

 

What happened after the American Civil War also shows how losers can influence history. After the war, the Lost Cause movement came about. The people that made upthis movement were members of the American South. They argued that they were the righteous ones, and that the North had had way more weapons and resources. They also tried to make slavery seem like a less important aspect of the war. The books they wrote became very popular. This version of the war made the people of the South seem like the real winners.

美國內戰之後的發展也可以顯示出輸家對歷史的影響力。戰爭結束後,一場敗局必定隨即展開。本次運動是由美洲南方的人民所組成,他們主張自己是正義的一方,並指控北方支配較多的武器和資源,他們也試圖模糊奴隸制造成戰爭發生的重要性。他們撰寫的書變得非常暢銷,這使得南方人民才是戰爭真正的贏家。

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. influential (adj.) having great influence on someone or something有影響力的

The Beatles were a very influential English rock band. 

披頭四是英國很有影響力的搖滾樂團。

 

2. present-day (adj.) relating to the current period of time 當今

Present-day technology is incredible! 

當今的科技真是讓人難以置信!

 

3. victorious (adj.) having won a victory 勝利的,獲勝的

The Falcons played the Vikings on Sunday, and the Falcons were victorious.  

本周日亞特蘭大獵鷹隊對上維京足球隊,由亞特蘭大獵鷹隊獲勝。

 

4. head (v) to move forward toward a point specified 前往..

I think I’m going to head home. See you later!   

我要回家了。晚點見!

 

5. unreasonably (adverb) in a way that is not guided by or based on good sense不合理地,不講理地

Kyle was unreasonably angry about the performance last night.

Kyle對於昨晚的表現異常的生氣。

 

6. violent (adj.) using physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something暴力的,劇烈的,猛烈的

The Olsen brothers were two of the most violent criminals that ever lived.

奧森兄弟是有史以來囚牢裡最暴力的兩名囚犯。

 

7. biased (adj.) having unfair views about someone or something存有偏見的

She said the movie was good, but I think she’s biased because her father directed it.

她認為這部電影拍得很好。但我認為這是她父親拍的電影,所以她有偏袒。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. among other things (phrase) used when you are mentioning one or more things out of a larger number除此之外...,還有...

I can play guitar, flute, drums, and piano, among other things.

我不只會演奏吉他、長笛、打鼓、鋼琴,除此之外我還會其他。

 

2. take over (phrasal verb) to take control 接管

Mr. Thompson wants to take over his father’s business one day.  

Thompson先生希望有一天他能接管父親的生意。

 

3. make up (something) (phrasal verb) to combine together to form something larger 結合

The leadership team is made up of three members: Johnny, Jimmy, and Jeremy.

此領導團隊由三個成員所組成:Johnny、 Jimmy和Jeremy。

 

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