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語言學習電子報_第六十八期 [2017-07-18]
類別:公告  發布單位:教務處

語言學習電子報

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第六十八期

 

本期目錄

                                BEG: Osaka’s Ryotaro Shiba Museum 大阪的司馬遼太郎紀念館

                               ADV: English Loan Words from Chinese 從中文借來的英文字

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Osaka’s Ryotaro Shiba Museum

大阪的司馬遼太郎紀念館

What better way to honor a famous author that to build a book museum? The Ryotaro Shiba Museum in Osaka, Japan celebrates the life of Ryotaro Shiba, an Osaka native. Shiba wrote more than 30 novels and hundreds of essays in his long career, mostly related to the history of Japan, before he passed away in 1996.

Elem20-01_縮小有什麼方式能比建造一座紀念館更能向著名文學家致敬呢?這間位於大阪的司馬遼太郎紀念館,是日本用來頌揚大阪出身的司馬遼太郎所建的。司馬在漫長的文學生涯中,曾撰寫了超過三十本以上的小說及千百篇散文,一直到於1996他逝世那年,其中大部份作品都和日本歷史相關。

The museum, opened five years after his death, is found in a quiet residential neighborhood and features two parts. The first is the house where Shiba lived for many years. The house looks over a small forest where he loved to go for walks. The new part of the museum is a large curving glass corridor full of 11-meter high bookshelves. The shelves contain 20,000 books from Shiba’s collection. Shiba used these books to research his novels and essays.

Elem20-02_縮小紀念館在他往生五年後開幕,館區座落於安靜的居宅區內,且特色分為兩個部份。第一是房屋建築,也就是司馬住了好幾年的房子。房中可以俯瞰司馬喜歡散步的小森林。紀念館的新區域則是由蜿蜒的玻璃帷幕長廊,內部充滿著11公尺高的書架所組成。書架上放置著兩萬本的司馬藏書,是司馬過去用來作為小說及散文的參考資料所用的。


The museum website encourages visitors to sit in a chair, look up, and admire the huge walls of books. By doing this, visitors can feel Ryotaro Shiba’s spirit. Note that photography and mobile phones are not allowed inside and you should be quiet while visiting.

紀念館的網站上鼓勵參觀者坐在椅子上,由下往上欣賞巨大牆面上的藏書。藉由這樣的方式,參觀者可以感覺到司馬遼太郎的靈魂。請注意攝影及手機是無法在內部使用的,且參觀時要保持安靜。 

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. native (n) a local person, a person born in a specific area  天生的;本土的;出生地的
Maya is a Taiwan native, even she speaks perfect English.       

即便Maya的英文很道地,但她是土生土長的台灣人。

 

2. residential (adj) related to residents, not businesses  居住的;住宅的;適合居住的

Burt and his family live in a residential area in the city center.   
Burt和他的家人住在市中心的住宅區。


3. curving (adj) a line that continues to bend at the same rate  彎曲的
The presenter drew a downward curving line to illustrate the decline in sales in the last year.     

簡報者畫了一條下彎曲線來描述去年逐漸下滑的業績。

 

4. corridor (n) hallway  走廊,迴廊,通道

Go to the end of the corridor then turn left.      

走到迴廊盡頭,然後左轉。


5. collection (n) a group of something that one collects  收集,採集;收藏品

Kevin has more than 2000 monster cards in his collection.  

Kevin收集了2000張以上的怪獸卡。


6. admire (v) appreciate  欽佩;欣賞
You can admire the waterfall from the bridge or walk right down to the bottom of it. 

你可以從橋上欣賞瀑布或是往下走到瀑布底部觀賞。

7. photography (n) the taking of photos  攝影;攝影學
Irene studied photography in college and now she does wedding photos. 
Irene在大學裡研讀攝影,現在她是名婚禮攝影師。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. what better way to V1 than to V2? (sentence pattern) The best way to V1 is to V2, Is there any way better than V1 to do V2?  有甚麼…更好
What better way to inspire others than to give a good speech?

有什麼方式能比演講更打動人心?


2. pass away (phrasal verb) die過世,死亡,身亡
Victoria’s grandmother passed away last night. 

Victoria的奶奶在昨晚過世。


3. look over (phrasal verb) have/has a view of  檢查;瀏覽
The balcony looks over the river valley.

陽台可以觀賞溪谷景色。

 

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English Loan Words from Chinese

從中文借來的英文字

We tend to think of languages as static, but in fact they are changing all the time and borrowing words from one another. There are many reasons one language might adopt a word from another. Here we will look at some of those reasons and give examples of Chinese words that have been adopted into the English language for each one.

我們以為語言是不改變的,但事實上,語言一直變動且互相借字使用。可能有很多原因會讓一種語言採用另一種語言的字詞。讓我們來看看內文中提到的一些原因,也看看英文從中文借字的幾個例子。

One reason a language might borrow a word from another is that a culture may not have a word for a new food introduced by that other culture. For example, English speakers didn’t have a word for Chinese style fried noodles, so they called this dish chow mein, which comes from Cantonese and also sounds similar to fried noodles inMandarin. There are many other Adv20-01_縮小food-related examples of English words that come from Chinese, including dim sum (廣式點心), lychee (荔枝), oolong (烏龍), tofu (豆腐), and wonton (雲吞).

借字的一個原因是在地文化中並沒有另一個文化所引進的新食物。舉例來說,中式炒麵當初沒有英文字,因此以英語人士就叫這道菜chow mein,這是廣東話,聽起來像普通話的炒麵。還有其他許多與食物相關的英文字也來自於中文,包括dim sum (廣式點心), lychee (荔枝), oolong (烏龍), tofu (豆腐), and wonton (雲吞)。

As you know, foods aren’t the only thing introduced by other cultures. Cultures can also introduce activities or abstract concepts. A good example of a Mandarin word that all English speakers are now familiar with is chi (氣), which means energy, as well as the popular activity tai chi (太極). Other English words from Chinese related to concepts or activities include yin yang (陰陽), feng shui (風水), mahjong (麻將), and kung fu (功夫).

Adv20-02_縮小如你所知,食物並不是唯一被引進到其他文化的物件。各國文化間也會引進活動或抽象的概念。有一個好例子是這個所有的現代英語人士都很孰悉的中國字,那就是chi(氣)意為能量,以及受人歡迎的活動tai chi(太極)。英文中與概念或活動相關的字包括yin yang (陰陽), feng shui (風水), mahjong (麻將), and kung fu (功夫),也都是從中文借來的。

In some cases, languages don’t import a new word or expression directly, but rather a literal translation of it simply because they find it to be an interesting or useful thing to say. For example, the Chinese expression 洗腦 literally means “wash brain” in English, so English speakers created a new English word, brainwash, which means to force somebody to change their beliefs.

在一些例子中,語言不會直接輸入一個新字詞表達用語,而是直接照字面翻譯過來,因為他們覺得那比較有趣、或比較有用。舉例來說,中文字「洗腦」在英文的字面意思就叫“wash brain”,因此英語人士創造一個新的英文字brainwash,意為強迫某人改變他們的信念。

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. static (adj) not changing or moving  靜態的,靜止的,停滯的
Science has shown us that nothing in the world is totally static. 
科學讓我們看到世間萬物並不全然靜止不動。

2. Cantonese (n) the language of Canton (Guangdong) and Hong Kong   廣東話

Cantonese is the main language of Hong Kong.     
廣東話是香港的主要語言。

3. Mandarin (adj) the standard dialect of Chinese  普通話
Mandarin is an official language in Taiwan, China, and Singapore.      
普通話是台灣、中國與新加坡的官方語言。

4. abstract (adj) related to ideas, not objects or physical things  抽象的
Philosophy is the study of abstract ideas.  
哲學是抽象概念的研究。

5. concept (n) an abstract idea  概念,觀念,思想
Several new psychological concepts were introduced during the lecture.         
數個新的心理學觀念在課程中介紹給大家。

6. literal (adj) taking words in their actual meaning  照字面上的,原義的
In the literal sense of the word, ‘awesome’ describes something that inspires awe, but many people just use the word to mean ‘cool.’
在文字的世界中,「awesome」這個字描述產生敬畏的東西,但許多人只用這個字來代表「酷」。

 

7.translation (n) a written or spoken version of something from another language 翻譯,譯本;轉化,轉變
Do you have the English translation of this book?  你有這本書的英譯版嗎?

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. one another (phr) like ‘each other’, but among more than two people/things  彼此(用於總數為三或三以上)
The students walked around and introduced themselves to one another. 
學生們到處走動向彼此介紹自己。

** each other 意同於one another,但用於總數為二。


2. as you know (phr) to introduce something the speaker already (probably) knows  如你所知
As you know, Amy is not the easiest person to get along with. 
如你所見,Amy不是個好相處的人。

 

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