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語言學習電子報_第七十一期 [2017-08-07]
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語言學習電子報

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第七十一期

 

本期目錄

                      BEG: Who Really ‘Discovered’ America? 誰真的「發現」了美洲大陸?

                      ADV: Wine: The Most Popular Drink in Ancient Rome 紅酒:古羅馬最受歡迎的飲品

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Who Really ‘Discovered’ America?

誰真的「發現」了美洲大陸?

You probably learned in school that an Italian named Christopher Columbus discovered America for the Spanish on 1492. The first thing to note is that ‘America’ does not refer to the United States of America but to the ‘Americas’, or the Western Hemisphere, which includes Elem23-01(縮小)North, Central, and South America. The first place where his ships touched land was actually an island of the Bahamas in the Caribbean Sea.

你可能在學校中學到是一位叫克里斯多福.哥倫布(Christopher Columbus)的義大利人在1492年為西班牙發現了美洲。第一件要注意的是「美洲」並不只和美利堅合眾國有關,而是和「美洲區」或西半球有關連,包含北美洲、中美洲與南美洲。哥倫布的船著陸的第一個地方實際上是在加勒比海的巴哈馬群島。

More importantly, Columbus was not the first European tostep foot in the Americas. That title actually belongs to Leif Erikson of Iceland, the Viking who built a settlement on the east coast of modern-day Canada in around the year 1000. It is difficult to knowhow many people lived there and for how long, but the evidence that Viking houses and iron workshops existed there is undeniable.           

Elem23-02(縮小)更重要地是,哥倫布不是第一次踏上美洲的歐洲人。這頭銜實際上是屬於冰島人萊夫.艾里克森(Leif Erikson)所有,一名在西元一千年時,在今天的加拿大東側海岸建立殖民地的維京人。因年代久遠,已很難知道當時有少人口,但維京人的房舍及冶鐵工作坊的遺跡存在於此是無可否認的證據。 

Even more importantly, the original inhabitants of the Americas, the Native Americans (also known First Nations, aboriginal people, or indigenous people) had been living in the Americas for thousands of years (15,000 years or more!) before Columbus arrived. So it is silly to say that Columbus ‘discovered’ America.

甚至更重要的,美國原住民,原生的美洲人(又稱做第一民族,原住民或是土著人民)在哥倫布抵達前就已住在美洲有上千年之久(一萬五千年或更久!)。所以說哥倫布「發現」了美洲是有點傻的事情。

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. hemisphere (n) one half of the world (usually N/S or E/W) (地球的)半球;半球體
88% of the world’s population lives in the Northern Hemisphere.

世上有88%的人口都居住在北半球。

 

2. modern-day (adj) relating to modern times現代的、當代的、今日的

This playwright is so good that some people have called her a modern-day Shakespeare. 

這位劇作家非常出色,以至於有些人稱她為現代莎士比亞。

3. iron (n) a metal鐵;(食物中所含的)鐵質
Shelly does most of her cooking with an iron pan.        

Shelly大部分的餐點都用鐵製平底鍋烹煮。

 

4. undeniable (adj) true, impossible to deny無可否認的

It is undeniable that Albert is the most talented player on the team.          

Albert是團隊中最有天份的運動員,這是無可否認的。


5. inhabitant (n) a person who lives somewhere (某地區的)居民,居住者

The inhabitants of this region are mostly Native Americans.    

此區域的居民大部分是美洲原住民。


6. indigenous (adj) native, or original person/plant/animal土產的;土著的;本地的
This cactus is indigenous to this region.  這株仙人掌是此地區的原生植物。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. step foot in (phr) to stand on or arrive/go to a place  踏進
Shelly says she would never step foot in a McDonalds.   
Shelly說她再也不會踏進麥當勞一步。


2. be + ADJ to V (sentence pattern)  
It is really easy to see that you haven’t taken a shower for a while.

要察覺你已有一陣子未梳洗是一件很容易的事情。


3. had been + V-ING (grammar tense) something was happening up to a specified point in the past 
Nick had been researching different wines for weeks before he finally decided to buy that one. 
Nick在決定購買哪一隻紅酒前,已經做了好幾個禮拜的研究了。

 

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Wine: The Most Popular Drink in Ancient Rome

紅酒:古羅馬最受歡迎的飲品

The history of wine drinking goes back to more than 10,000 years ago. Ancient humans probably discovered it by accident, for example by eating grapes that had gone bad. The first intentional wine making probably occurred around 9000-6000 years ago in the Middle East Adv23-01(縮小)when people began living in permanentvillages and growing grapes. But some of the biggest wine lovers in history were the ancient Romans.

飲用紅酒的歷史可追溯回一萬年前。古人可能是意外發現的,像是食用壞掉的葡萄。第一批有計畫製作的紅酒可能在六千至九千年前的中東,當人類開始居住在永久的村莊種植葡萄的時候。但歷史上一些最喜愛紅酒的人是古羅馬人。

In ancient Rome, everybody drank wine, from the richest of the rich to the poorest of slaves. Soldiers were advised to drink at least a liter of wine per day to keep up their energy, and some historians believe that the average person in Rome drank as much as three liters per day. Drinking wine was believed to be one of life’s great pleasures, and the Romans seldom held back on indulging. Wine was served with every meal, and was also thought to be a form of medicine. The Romans even has a god of wine, Bacchus, their version of the Greek wine god Dionysus.

在古羅馬時代,每個人都喝紅酒,最富有的有錢人到最貧困的窮奴隸都會呵紅酒。士兵被建議一天至少喝一公升的紅酒來維持精力,有些歷史學家相信一般的羅馬人一天喝三公升之多。飲用紅酒被相信是一個人生命中最大的愉悅,而羅馬人很少控制自己的酒量。每份餐點有隨附紅酒,也被當成一種藥品。羅馬人甚至有酒神Bacchus,這就是羅馬版本的希臘酒神Dionysus。

So what was Roman wine like? Usually the grapes were crushed under the feet of slaves and then collected in 400-liter pots to ferment. Honey, seawater, or a variety of spices were usually added for flavor. The wine was sometimes sweet and sometimesdry. It was usually about 12% alcohol, but most people mixed it with water.

因此羅馬的葡萄酒是什麼呢?通常奴隸用腳踩爛葡萄,然後收集400公升的壺來發酵。蜂蜜、鹽水、或是通常加入各種香料來增加風味。葡萄酒有時很甜、有時不甜。通常含有大約百分之12的酒精,但Adv23-02(縮)大多人會參和著水一起喝。

In the 1990s, a group of archaeologists reopened a Roman winery in southern France that had been closed for 1800 years. In its time, the winery had produced 100,000 bottles of wine per day!

在1990年代,一群考古學家重新開放已關閉了一千八百年的南法羅馬葡萄酒園。在營運期間,葡萄園一天生產十萬瓶紅酒!

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. intentional (adj) on purpose, not accidental  有目的的、故意的
You shouldn’t be angry. His insult wasn’t intentional. 

你不應該生氣。他的侮辱不是故意的。  

2. permanent (adj) forever, not temporary  永久的,固定不變的

To become a permanent citizen of this country you have to undergo a five-year application process.

為了成為這個國家的永久居民,你必須經過五年的申請過程。

3. slave (n) a person forced to work for no pay  奴隸,苦工
Over 10 million Africans were taken to the Americas as slaves.         
超過一千萬名非洲人被帶到美國當奴隸。

4. indulge (v) to allow oneself to enjoy the pleasures of something  沉迷於,使高興,讓…享受一下
Every time Cathy passes an ice cream stand, she can’t help but indulge.     
每次Cathy經過一間冰淇淋攤,她就忍不住吃了起來。

5. crush (v) to squish something  壓碎,榨,碾碎
The little old lady crushed the cockroach with her bare foot. 

這個體型嬌小的老太太用赤裸的腳踩碎蟑螂。          

6. ferment (v) to turn something from juice into alcohol, or the bacterial breakdown of a food which makes it go sour  使發酵,醞釀
Kim chi, a famous Korean side dish, is made of spicy fermented cabbage. 
泡菜是有名的韓國小菜,用辛辣的發酵高麗菜做的。

7. dry (adj) not sweet, for alcoholic drinks  (酒類)不甜的,乾的,乾燥的,乾旱的
Dr. Lisbon ordered a bottle of dry red wine. 
李斯本醫生點了一瓶不甜的紅酒。

8. archaeologist (n) a person who digs up and analyzes human-related remains and artifacts from the past  考古學家
Archaeologists recently discovered a new Mayan pyramid in Guatemala.  

考古學家最近在瓜地馬拉發現一座新的馬雅金字塔。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. from A to B (phr) to express a range  自A到B
All of our products, from the cheapest pen to the most expensive computer, are of the highest quality. 

我們所有的商品,從最便宜的筆到最昂貴的電腦,都是最高的品質。

2. hold back on sth/Ving (phr) to avoid having/doing something, to use less of something  限制,退縮,保留,阻止
Kylie! Hold back on the salt! It’s going to give you a heart attack!  
Kylie!限制一下鹽巴!鹽巴會讓你心臟病發!

3. in sb’s/sth’s time (expression) at the time of sb/sth, in sb’s generation (某人)那個年代
In my grandparents’ time, their family was the only one living in this neighborhood. 

我祖父母那個年代,他們家是唯一一戶住在這個街區的。

 

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