語言學習電子報_第九十二期

類別:公告  發布單位:教務處-教務主任 日期:2018-01-08

語言學習電子報

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第九十二期

 

本期目錄

                                        BEG: Why is Latin Important? 為何拉丁文如此重要?

                                                           ADV: Mama and Baba 媽媽與爸爸

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Why is Latin Important?

為何拉丁文如此重要?

Latin is an extinct language. In other words, there are no native speakers of it. Latin was the language that the ancient Romans spoke, but over time it fell out of use. However, all of the Romance languages, a large group of related languages, were born from Latin. Romance Elem44-01languages include Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian.

拉丁文是一種絕跡的語言。換句話說,再也沒有以拉丁為母語的人。拉丁語是古羅馬人在使用的語言,但隨著時光流逝已不再使用。然而,所有的羅馬語系,及一系列相關語言,都源自於拉丁文。羅馬語系包含西班牙文、葡萄牙文、法文及義大利文。

Even though Latin is an extinct language, many people still study it in school and use it. Why is that?

儘管拉丁語是一種絕跡的語言,許多人在校時還是會學習並使用拉丁文。為什麼呢?


First of all, Latin has always been the preferred language of the Catholic religion.Priests often speak it in church and it is used in Vatican, where the Pope lives.

首先,拉丁文是天主教偏好使用的語言。神父常會在教堂拉丁文且在教皇居住的地方梵諦岡也還在使用。
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But many students all over the world choose to study Latin for a variety of reasons. Since it is the mother of so many other languages, it can help you to understand where words in those languages came from. If you understand Latin grammar, it can also make grammar in those other languages seem easier. In addition, Latin is the source of many scientific, legal, and political words. Learning it can help one to understand manyaspects of Western Civilization.

但世界上許多學生們研讀拉丁文的原因各有不同。因為它是許多其他語言的母語,它可以幫助你了解來自其他地方的語言。如果你了解拉丁語的語法,也可以讓其他語言的文法看起來更簡單。除此之外,拉丁文是許多科學用語、法律用語、及政治語言的源頭。學習拉丁文可以幫助一個人了解西方文明的許多面向。

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. preferred (adj) to describe something liked more than others  更好的;被喜好的;優先的

Photoshop is the preferred software of many photo editors.

Photoshop是許多影像編輯者偏好使用的軟體。

 

2. priest (n) a teacher/leader in the Christian religion  ﹝天主教的﹞神父

The priest talked to the church members about the importance of love.

神父和教堂成員們講述愛的重要性。

 

3. church (n) a building where Christians pray  教堂

Many Catholics only go to church on Sundays.

許多天主教徒只在星期天上教堂。

 

4. aspect (n) part/feature  方面,觀點

There were many aspects of the theory that the students still didn’t understand.

這則理論有許多學生們還不太了解的觀點。

 

5. civilization (n) the society/culture of an area  文明;文明國家;文化

Ancient Egyptian civilization is a popular subject among young teens.

古埃及文明在年輕人中是一項非常受歡迎的研究主題。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. native speaker (expression) a person who learned a language from birth  母語人士

Sage’s dad is from Canada and mom is from Taiwan, so he is a native speaker of two languages.

Sage的爸爸來自於加拿大,而媽媽是台灣人,所以他是雙語人士。

 

2. fall out of use (phr) to stop being used  不再使用

Many of the books in the library have fallen out of use because people nowadays prefer to read things in digital format. 

圖書館中的許多書籍已不再被使用,因為現代人比較偏好閱讀電子資料。

 

3. in addition (phr) moreover, furthermore, also  此外

Jessica is going to travel to the South to see her grandparents this weekend. In addition, she wants to visit some hot springs there.

Jessica周末時要去南部拜訪她的祖父母。除此之外,她想要去泡那裡的溫泉。

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Mama and Baba

媽媽與爸爸

In many of the world’s languages, the words for ‘mother’ and ‘father’ are strangelysimilar. For ‘mother’, speakers of most languages say something along the lines of‘mama’ or ‘nana’. For ‘father’, the words are usually ‘baba’ or ‘papa’. What’s more, these words are often the first words that babies all over the world utter. And for parents the world over, nothing is sweeter than when their child says ‘mama’ or ‘baba’ as their first word. But how can we explain this? Is there just some kind of natural human trait shared by all babies that goes beyond language and culture and makes babies know that their mother should be called Adv44-01‘mama’ and father should be called ‘baba’?

在許多世界語言中,表示「母親」和「父親」的用語很不可思議地都相似。以「母親」來說,大多語言都有類似「媽媽」或「娜娜」這樣的用詞。以「父親」來說,這些話通常是「爸爸」或「帕帕」。還有,這些通常是世界各地的嬰兒發出的第一句話。對於世界各地的家長來說,沒有什麼比他們的孩子第一次說出「媽媽」或「爸爸」時而更甜蜜了。但是我們如何解釋這個現象呢?是否有某種超越語言和文化、所有寶寶都有的自然人類特質,讓他們知道母親應該被稱為「媽媽」,父親應該被稱為「爸爸」呢?

Not really. According to the research of one linguist, these are just the easiest words for babies to say. Babies usually start by making sounds like ‘ah’. Next they learn how to close their mouth while making the ‘ah’ sound, which produces an ‘m’ sound. The result is that they usually say ‘ma’ first. After that, they usually go on to learn that blowing out a little puff of air makes a ‘p’ sound, so then we get ‘pa’. And the sad truth (for parents) is that usually when babies say these words for the first time, they have no idea what they mean. But over time, the reactions from parents teach the babies to associate ‘mama’ with their mother and ‘baba’ with their father.

Adv44-02其實不是這樣的。根據一位語言學家的研究,這些只是嬰兒能說出最簡單的話。嬰兒通常會以發出「啊」的聲音開始。接下來,他們會學習如何閉著嘴巴同時發出「啊」聲,而這則會產生「ㄇ」聲。這樣的結果是他們通常會先說出「媽」。之後,他們通常會繼續學著呼出一點點空氣,發出「ㄆ」聲,所以我們會聽到「帕」。而令人難過的真相(對父母來說)是通常當嬰兒第一次說這些話時,他們不知道其中的意思。但隨著時間的推移,父母的反應教導孩子們將母親和「媽媽」,父親和「爸爸」連結在一起。

 

 

Vocabulary 好字精選

1. strangely (adj) in a strange way奇怪地

Horton fell strangely in love with his computer.

Horton奇怪地愛上了他的電腦。

 

2. utter (v) make a sound發出聲音

Kyle couldn’t even utter a sound when he saw the horrifying ghost.

當Kyle看到可怕的鬼時,他甚至發不出聲音。

 

3. linguist (n) a language expert語言學家

Linguists point out that the two languages use very different words but have similar grammar and sentence patterns.

語言學家指出,這兩種語言使用非常不同的字詞,但具有類似的語法和句型。

 

4. puff (n) a small burst of breath or wind喘氣;吹

Marissa blew out a puff of smoke from the cigarette. 

Marissa從香煙吹出一屢煙。

 

5. reaction (n) something said/done in response to something else反應

The father’s reaction to the son’s mistake was too dramatic and mean; he got really mad at him and called him stupid.

父親對兒子犯的錯反應太誇張又刻薄, 他很生氣然後罵他笨。

 

Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析

1. along the lines of (phr) something similar to類似

Jessie wants to buy a pair of brand name sports shoes along the lines of Nike or Adidas.

Jessie想要買一雙類似Nike或Adidas這種有牌子的運動鞋。

 

2. the world over (phr) around the world世界各地

Teenagers the world over seem to be in love with that artist.

世界各地的青少年似乎都愛上了那位藝術家。

 

3. go beyond (phr) to be more than超越

This romance movie goes beyond what is normal for the genre; it includes aspects of action, comedy, and horror all in one.

這部浪漫電影超越了這類影片的一般形式;它結合了動作、喜劇和恐怖片。

 

4. S + go on to + V (sentence pattern) S does something next/later 接著

After graduating, Kim went on to inherit her father’s company.

畢業後,Kim接著繼承了父親的公司。

 

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