We tend to think of languages as static, but in fact they are changing all the time and borrowing words from one another. There are many reasons one language might adopt a word from another. Here we will look at some of those reasons and give examples of Chinese words that have been adopted into the English language for each one.
One reason a language might borrow a word from another is that a culture may not have a word for a new food introduced by that other culture. For example, English speakers didn’t have a word for Chinese style fried noodles, so they called this dish chow mein, which comes from Cantonese and also sounds similar to fried noodles inMandarin. There are many other food-related examples of English words that come from Chinese, including dim sum (廣式點心), lychee (荔枝), oolong (烏龍), tofu (豆腐), and wonton (雲吞).
借字的一個原因是在地文化中並沒有另一個文化所引進的新食物。舉例來說，中式炒麵當初沒有英文字，因此以英語人士就叫這道菜chow mein，這是廣東話，聽起來像普通話的炒麵。還有其他許多與食物相關的英文字也來自於中文，包括dim sum (廣式點心), lychee (荔枝), oolong (烏龍), tofu (豆腐), and wonton (雲吞)。
As you know, foods aren’t the only thing introduced by other cultures. Cultures can also introduce activities or abstract concepts. A good example of a Mandarin word that all English speakers are now familiar with is chi (氣), which means energy, as well as the popular activity tai chi (太極). Other English words from Chinese related to concepts or activities include yin yang (陰陽), feng shui (風水), mahjong (麻將), and kung fu (功夫).
如你所知，食物並不是唯一被引進到其他文化的物件。各國文化間也會引進活動或抽象的概念。有一個好例子是這個所有的現代英語人士都很孰悉的中國字，那就是chi(氣)意為能量，以及受人歡迎的活動tai chi(太極)。英文中與概念或活動相關的字包括yin yang (陰陽), feng shui (風水), mahjong (麻將), and kung fu (功夫)，也都是從中文借來的。
In some cases, languages don’t import a new word or expression directly, but rather a literal translation of it simply because they find it to be an interesting or useful thing to say. For example, the Chinese expression 洗腦 literally means “wash brain” in English, so English speakers created a new English word, brainwash, which means to force somebody to change their beliefs.
1. static (adj) not changing or moving 靜態的，靜止的，停滯的
Science has shown us that nothing in the world is totally static.
2. Cantonese (n) the language of Canton (Guangdong) and Hong Kong 廣東話
Cantonese is the main language of Hong Kong.
3. Mandarin (adj) the standard dialect of Chinese 普通話
Mandarin is an official language in Taiwan, China, and Singapore.
4. abstract (adj) related to ideas, not objects or physical things 抽象的
Philosophy is the study of abstract ideas.
5. concept (n) an abstract idea 概念，觀念，思想
Several new psychological concepts were introduced during the lecture.
6. literal (adj) taking words in their actual meaning 照字面上的，原義的
In the literal sense of the word, ‘awesome’ describes something that inspires awe, but many people just use the word to mean ‘cool.’
7.translation (n) a written or spoken version of something from another language 翻譯，譯本；轉化，轉變
Do you have the English translation of this book? 你有這本書的英譯版嗎？
Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析
1. one another (phr) like ‘each other’, but among more than two people/things 彼此(用於總數為三或三以上)
The students walked around and introduced themselves to one another.
** each other 意同於one another，但用於總數為二。
2. as you know (phr) to introduce something the speaker already (probably) knows 如你所知
As you know, Amy is not the easiest person to get along with.