The history of wine drinking goes back to more than 10,000 years ago. Ancient humans probably discovered it by accident, for example by eating grapes that had gone bad. The first intentional wine making probably occurred around 9000-6000 years ago in the Middle East when people began living in permanentvillages and growing grapes. But some of the biggest wine lovers in history were the ancient Romans.
In ancient Rome, everybody drank wine, from the richest of the rich to the poorest of slaves. Soldiers were advised to drink at least a liter of wine per day to keep up their energy, and some historians believe that the average person in Rome drank as much as three liters per day. Drinking wine was believed to be one of life’s great pleasures, and the Romans seldom held back on indulging. Wine was served with every meal, and was also thought to be a form of medicine. The Romans even has a god of wine, Bacchus, their version of the Greek wine god Dionysus.
So what was Roman wine like? Usually the grapes were crushed under the feet of slaves and then collected in 400-liter pots to ferment. Honey, seawater, or a variety of spices were usually added for flavor. The wine was sometimes sweet and sometimesdry. It was usually about 12% alcohol, but most people mixed it with water.
In the 1990s, a group of archaeologists reopened a Roman winery in southern France that had been closed for 1800 years. In its time, the winery had produced 100,000 bottles of wine per day!
1. intentional (adj) on purpose, not accidental 有目的的、故意的
You shouldn’t be angry. His insult wasn’t intentional.
2. permanent (adj) forever, not temporary 永久的，固定不變的
To become a permanent citizen of this country you have to undergo a five-year application process.
3. slave (n) a person forced to work for no pay 奴隸，苦工
Over 10 million Africans were taken to the Americas as slaves.
4. indulge (v) to allow oneself to enjoy the pleasures of something 沉迷於，使高興，讓…享受一下
Every time Cathy passes an ice cream stand, she can’t help but indulge.
5. crush (v) to squish something 壓碎，榨，碾碎
The little old lady crushed the cockroach with her bare foot.
6. ferment (v) to turn something from juice into alcohol, or the bacterial breakdown of a food which makes it go sour 使發酵，醞釀
Kim chi, a famous Korean side dish, is made of spicy fermented cabbage.
7. dry (adj) not sweet, for alcoholic drinks (酒類)不甜的，乾的，乾燥的，乾旱的
Dr. Lisbon ordered a bottle of dry red wine.
8. archaeologist (n) a person who digs up and analyzes human-related remains and artifacts from the past 考古學家
Archaeologists recently discovered a new Mayan pyramid in Guatemala.
Phrases and Sentence Patterns句型解析
1. from A to B (phr) to express a range 自A到B
All of our products, from the cheapest pen to the most expensive computer, are of the highest quality.
2. hold back on sth/Ving (phr) to avoid having/doing something, to use less of something 限制，退縮，保留，阻止
Kylie! Hold back on the salt! It’s going to give you a heart attack!
3. in sb’s/sth’s time (expression) at the time of sb/sth, in sb’s generation (某人)那個年代
In my grandparents’ time, their family was the only one living in this neighborhood.
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